Literature map africa europe history timeline

Read on. Most of Africa is home to bands of hunter-gatherers, but in the Nile valley, the civilization of Egypt is beginning to emerge. In the Nile Valley, Ancient Egypt, one of the great civilizations of the ancient world, is now flourishing. The civilization of Ancient Egypt, in the Nile Valley, is reaching new heights. The civilization of Ancient Egypt, in the Nile Valley, is now in decline; farming is spreading in western and central Africa.

Bantu farmers from West Africa are beginning to spread out across the continent. Trade routes across the Sahara desert are being pioneered, while, to the south, Bantu farmers continue their swift expansion across the continent.

North Africa is now part of the Roman empire, while in central Africa the Bantu expansion continues. All of North Africa is now part of the Roman empire, while to the south the Bantu migration continues. A powerful new kingdom is arising in Ethiopia, while in West Africa trade routes across the Sahara are developing. The Christian civilization of the Nubian kingdoms in the Nile Valley continues The expansion of trade in West Africa is leading to the rise of new kingdoms.

Large numbers of Africans are being taken to the Americas as slaves. The Atlantic Slave Trade is at its height, and having a destructive impact on wide areas of the African interior. The Zulu conquests are causing turmoil over a large part of south and central Africa. The European powers have divided almost the whole of Africa up between them. The European nations are starting to withdraw from the empires in Africa. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the kingdom of Mali grew into a large empire, and then declined again.

A major upheaval has affected Kanem. Faced with internal revolt and nomadic invasion from the east, a king moved south with his loyal followers and set up a new state in Bornu. Islam has continued to […]. This period has seen kingdoms appearing in different parts of central Africa.

Some of these are linked to the continued expansion of the trade routes from the Indian Ocean. Most notably, the inhabitants of Great Zimbabwe have benefited greatly from their control of the gold trade down the Zambezi Valley to the coast. After flourishing […].

In the 13th and early 14th centuries the Christian Nubian kingdom of Maqurrah was overwhelmed by the inflow of Arab tribes, ejected from Egypt by its Mamluqs rulers. The conversion of Dongola cathedral into a mosque symbolized this process. These tribes have continued migrating south and west, pushed on by the expanding power of […].

In Nubia, the centuries-old kingdom of Kush has vanished; three kingdoms have emerged to succeed it: Nobatia, Maqurrah and Alwah. In Ethiopia, the kingdom of Aksum has become a powerful state. It has also become a Christian one, converted by monks from the Byzantine empire. Ethiopian Christianity is centred around monasteries, which will play an […].Skip to content Emperor Menelik II on the throne in coronation garb.

Event Keyword:. Select Subject:. Select Country:. Select Era:. Please confirm deletion. There is no undo! Cancel Delete. Hominid species Australopithicus afarensis lived in the Hadar region of Ethiopia, including "Lucy," the famous skeletal remains found in Period of migration across the African continent and out of Africa to Asia and Europe. Fire is first used during this period.

literature map africa europe history timeline

Spread of agriculture across Africa. River societies emerge along the Nile, Niger, and Congo Rivers. Egyptian agriculturalists develop irrigation and animal husbandry to transform the lower Nile Valley. The rise in the food supply generates a rapidly increasing population. Agricultural surpluses and growing wealth allow specialization including glass making, pottery, metallurgy, weaving, woodworking, leather making, and masonry.

Egyptians begin using burial texts to accompany their dead into the afterlife. This is the first evidence of written texts anywhere in the world. Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great. Ptolemy becomes the first ruler of a dynasty that will control Egypt until BCE. Alexandria on the Mediterranean Sea is the scientific capital of the Hellenistic world, famous for its museum, university, and library.

It is located in what is now Burkina Faso. Rome conquers Carthage and establishes its first significant presence on the African continent.

African literature

Terence Afer the African is considered one of the the Roman Empire's finest Latin translators and poets. Slavery is a major feature of the Roman Empire for several hundred years. An extensive slave trade develops in Medieval Europe. The vast majority of the slaves originate in what is now Russia and eastern Europe but slaves come from every society on the continent.

By a small number of slaves are of African origin. A cathedral is established at Faras to establish the Christian era in Nubia. Beginning of trans-Indian trade as reflected by Chinese coins from the period found on the East Coast of Africa. Egypt is conquered and converted to Islam. New Islamic capital of Cairo is established. Arabs initiate a slave trade that sends sub-Saharan Africans to both Europe and Asia.

An estimated 14 million Africans are sold between and Evidence suggests that African travelers may have come to the Americas before Europeans. One indication is the great stone carvings of the Olmec era in Mexico, bearing African facial features. They will control the region and operate as an independent state for fourteen years until troops from Baghdad finally conquer the region.A Portuguese prince, Henry the Navigator, becomes fascinated by exploration down the coast of Africa and commissions successive voyages.

The Portuguese, discovering the lush and uninhabited island of Madeira, send colonists to settle it. A Portuguese captain, sailing for Henry the Navigator, chances upon the Azores. Go to Azores in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

Portuguese settlers are sent to the unoccupied islands of the Azores.

Portugal claims ownership of the region of Guinea, subsequently the centre of their slave trade on the west African coast. The caravel, a sailing ship developed in the Mediterranean and used down the west coast of Africa, is adapted by the Portuguese for Atlantic use. A Portuguese navigator discovers some of the Cape Verde islands, tropical and at that time uninhabited.

The Portuguese settlers on the Cape Verde islands are granted a monopoly on the new slave trade. The Portuguese establish a further presence on the west coast of Africa, at the mouth of the Congo river.

Go to Congo in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Bartolomeu Dias, sailing for the king of Portugal, becomes the first European navigator to round the Cape of Good Hope. The Portuguese establish trading posts in east Africa, on the coast of Mozambique. The Portuguese set up a trading post on the east African island of Zanzibar. Go to Zanzibar in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Africans, bought in the Portuguese trading posts of west Africa, are shipped across the Atlantic as slaves.

The French build a trading station on the estuary of the Senegal river in west Africa.

literature map africa europe history timeline

Go to Senegal River in Encyclopedia of Africa 1 ed. The Dutch in South Africa purchase slaves to do domestic and agricultural work. A fleet from Oman evicts the Portuguese from Mombasa and Zanzibar.

Go to Mombasa in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The triangular trade, controlled from Liverpool, ships millions of Africans across the Atlantic as slaves. Dutch nomads, pressing far north from Cape Town, become known as the Trekboers. Go to Afrikaner in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. A British ship lands a party of freed slaves as the first modern settlers in Sierra Leone, on the west coast of Africa.

Dutch Boers begin calling themselves Afrikaners, to emphasize that Africa is their native land. Mungo Park sets off on his first expedition to explore the Niger on behalf of the African Association. Go to Park, Mungo — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.

Go to Cape Colony in Encyclopedia of Africa 1 ed. The British government uses Freetown, in Sierra Leone, as a base in the fight against the slave trade.

Europe: Timeline of National Flags: 1000 - 2019

The British impose the so-called Hottentot Code, protecting Africans at the Cape but also tying them to employers' farms. The British establish Bathurst now Banjul at the mouth of the Gambia as a base against the slave trade. The American Colonization Society buys the area later known as Liberia to settle freed slaves.

The Turkish governor of Algiers, flicking at the French consul with his fly whisk, finds that he has provoked a French blockade and eventually invasion.

Richard Lander and his brother John explore the lower reaches of the Niger, proving that the great river is navigable. A French army invades Algeria, beginning the process which brings the region within the French empire. The paddle steamer Alburkah becomes the first ocean-going iron ship, completing the journey from England to the Niger.

Go to paddle steamer noun in Oxford Dictionary of English 3 ed.African literaturethe body of traditional oral and written literatures in Afro-Asiatic and African languages together with works written by Africans in European languages. Traditional written literature, which is limited to a smaller geographic area than is oral literatureis most characteristic of those sub-Saharan cultures that have participated in the cultures of the Mediterranean.

In particular, there are written literatures in both Hausa and Arabic, created by the scholars of what is now northern Nigeriaand the Somali people have produced a traditional written literature. Works written in European languages date primarily from the 20th century onward.

The literature of South Africa in English and Afrikaans is also covered in a separate article, South African literature.

See also African theatre. The relationship between oral and written traditions and in particular between oral and modern written literatures is one of great complexity and not a matter of simple evolution.

Modern African literatures were born in the educational systems imposed by colonialism, with models drawn from Europe rather than existing African traditions. But the African oral traditions exerted their own influence on these literatures. The storyteller speaks, time collapses, and the members of the audience are in the presence of history. It is a time of masks.

Reality, the present, is here, but with explosive emotional images giving it a context. And history, always more than an academic subject, becomes for the audience a collapsing of time.

During a performance, these envelop contemporary images—the most unstable parts of the oral traditionbecause they are by their nature always in a state of flux—and thereby visit the past on the present. It is the task of the storyteller to forge the fantasy images of the past into masks of the realistic images of the present, enabling the performer to pitch the present to the past, to visualize the present within a context of—and therefore in terms of—the past. Flowing through this potent emotional grid is a variety of ideas that have the look of antiquity and ancestral sanction.

Story occurs under the mesmerizing influence of performance—the body of the performer, the music of her voice, the complex relationship between her and her audience. It is a world unto itself, whole, with its own set of laws. Images that are unlike are juxtaposedand then the storyteller reveals—to the delight and instruction of the members of the audience—the linkages between them that render them homologous.

In this way the past and the present are blended; ideas are thereby generated, forming a conception of the present. Performance gives the images their context and ensures the audience a ritual experience that bridges past and present and shapes contemporary life. Storytelling is alive, ever in transition, never hardened in time. Stories are not meant to be temporally frozen; they are always responding to contemporary realities, but in a timeless fashion.

Storytelling is therefore not a memorized art.

The necessity for this continual transformation of the story has to do with the regular fusing of fantasy and images of the real, contemporary world.

The artist makes the linkages, the storyteller forges the bonds, tying past and present, joining humans to their gods, to their leaders, to their families, to those they love, to their deepest fears and hopes, and to the essential core of their societies and beliefs. The language of storytelling includes, on the one hand, image, the patterning of image, and the manipulation of the body and voice of the storyteller and, on the other, the memory and present state of the audience.

A storytelling performance involves memory: the recollection of each member of the audience of his experiences with respect to the story being performed, the memory of his real-life experiences, and the similar memories of the storyteller.

It is the rhythm of storytelling that welds these disparate experiences, yearnings, and thoughts into the images of the story. And the images are known, familiar to the audience.

That familiarity is a crucial part of storytelling. The storyteller does not craft a story out of whole cloth: she re-creates the ancient story within the context of the real, contemporary, known world. It is the metaphorical relationship between these memories of the past and the known images of the world of the present that constitutes the essence of storytelling.

The story is never history; it is built of the shards of history. Images are removed from historical contextsthen reconstituted within the demanding and authoritative frame of the story.

And it is always a sensory experience, an experience of the emotions. Storytellers know that the way to the mind is by way of the heart. The interpretative effects of the storytelling experience give the members of the audience a refreshed sense of reality, a context for their experiences that has no existence in reality.

It is only when images of contemporary life are woven into the ancient familiar images that metaphor is born and experience becomes meaningful. Stories deal with change: mythic transformations of the cosmos, heroic transformations of the culture, transformations of the lives of everyman.Specifies the default objective field. Example: true size optional Integer,default is the source's size The number of bytes from the source that you want to use.

literature map africa europe history timeline

Example: 500 You can also use curl to customize a new dataset with a name, and different size, and only a few fields from the original source. If you do not specify a size, BigML. If you do not specify any fields BigML. This predicate is specified as a (possibly nested) JSON list whose first element is an operator and the rest of the elements its arguments. Here's an example of a filter specification to choose only those rows whose field "000002" is less than 3.

Note how you're not limited to two arguments. It's also worth noting that for a filter like that one to be accepted, all three fields must have the same optype (e. The field operator also accepts as arguments the field's name (as a string) or the row column (as an integer). If you have duplicated field names, the best thing to do is to use either column numbers or field identifiers in your filters, to avoid ambiguities.

Besides a field's value, one can also ask whether it's missing or not. These are all the accepted operators: To be accepted by the API, the filter must evaluate to a boolean value and contain at least one operator. So, for instance, a constant or an expression evaluating to a number will be rejected. Once a dataset has been successfully created it will have the following properties. This is the date and time in which the dataset was created with microsecond precision.

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Global African History Timeline

Keyboard shortcuts can make you feel smart, but they can also help you get work done faster and more efficiently. Learn how to use them here. These keyboard shortcuts, which each come in the form of a keyboard shortcut vine, can help you get work done faster and more efficiently. When learning about mouse shortcuts Mac and PC users have different options.

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The zodiac signs form the basis of astrological forecasts in the most popular form of astrology that is practiced worldwide. These types of 12 zodiac signs permit a native to understand, absorb and seek assistance about what possibilities watch for him or her in the future.

A horoscope may also be referenced to as an figura chart, an astrological graph and or chart or a star graph and or chart, etc.

John Abraham burst into the Bollywood scenario with the murder mystery Jism and immediately caught the attention of almost everyone with his drop dead good looks and his portrayal of a passionate lover. He had kind of an average outing after Jism until he was spotted by the Yash Raj Films camp for the action thriller, Dhoom. The movie soon became his most famous venture till date and catapulted Jo. Aries Weekly Horoscope With the sun in Scorpio, there may be tension in your life.

The lesson of Scorpio is to learn to let go of anything that does not serve you such as resentment o Read More. Aries Monthly Horoscope With the sun in Scorpio until the 14th, your confidence is not at its highest. You are encouraged to focus on your career.

As an action-oriented sign, taking pr Read More. Taurus Daily Horoscope As Moon makes its presence felt in Virgo, you will be ushered with a lot of good luck in everything you do.

This will keep you happy and cheerful throughout the Read More. Taurus Weekly Horoscope The sun in Scorpio continues to put the focus on your love life. Scorpio brings what is hidden to the surface and is not afraid to dig deep. As such, you may le Read More. Taurus Monthly Horoscope Taurus, you start this month with the sun in Scorpio. Scorpio is always seeking out the depth and it tends to find the areas where we are the most sensitive, wh Read More.

Gemini Daily Horoscope Today is a day where you will be very creative and do something new and innovative at work as the Moon's position in Virgo is favorable for you. You will receiv Read More. Gemini Weekly Horoscope The sun in Scorpio is keeping you on a good trajectory as it keeps you focused. A focused Gemini is able to apply all of their brilliance and enthusiasm and cha Read More.