Metrics details. Earlier studies have shown that people with low level of education have increased rates of mental health problems. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between level of education and psychological distress, and to explore to which extent the association is mediated by sense of mastery, and social variables like social support, negative life events, household income, employment and marital status.
The data for the study were obtained from the Level of Living Survey conducted by Statistics Norway in Data on psychological distress and psychosocial variables were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire, whereas socio-demographic data were based on register statistics.
Psychological distress was measured by Hopkins Symptom Checklist 25 items. There was a significant association between low level of education and psychological distress in both genders, the association being strongest in women aged 55—67 years.
Low level of education was also significantly associated with low sense of mastery, low social support, many negative life events only in menlow household income and unemployment. Sense of mastery emerged as a strong mediating variable between level of education and psychological distress, whereas the other variables played a minor role when adjusting for sense of mastery. Low sense of mastery seems to account for much of the association between low educational level and psychological distress, and should be an important target in mental health promotion for groups with low level of education.
Peer Review reports. Mental health problems have become a major public health concern, epidemiological studies showing that up to one-fifth or one-quarter of the general population suffer from some sort of mental disorder at a given time [ 1 — 3 ].
For this reason, it is of great public health interest to monitor the development in various countries, with respect to morbidity as well as factors that might influence mental health. For the purpose of monitoring mental health in the population, the EU has recently recommended a set of indicators [ 4 ]. The set is developed as a project under the EC Health Monitoring programme, and is based on the collection of information on existing mental health indicators at both national and international levels, and the review of literature.
The following domains are covered by the indicators: Socio-demographic, social networks, stressful life events, positive mental health i.
Some of this information may be collected from registers and existing statistics, but most of the information has to be collected by special surveys. This variety of indicators could be used not only to describe mental health in terms of morbidity and use of health services, but also to identify individual and environmental factors which influence mental health, in a positive or negative way.
A number of the mental health indicators and measuring instruments suggested by the European Union have been adopted in the Norwegian Health and Level of Living Survey. This nation wide survey takes place every three year, and is conducted by Statistics Norway.
In the present paper some of the recommended mental health indicators and measuring instruments will be used to investigate the relationship between education and mental health.
There are various mechanisms which might explain the association between poor mental health and low education. Low education may also contribute to poor mental health through poor economy and problems on the labour market.
Lastly, low educational level could be associated with a low sense of mastery, which could be a stressor in itself, or indirectly influence mental health through other psychosocial variables, like social support [ 5 ].
Higher rates of psychological distress in people with little education have been reported in several studies [ 67 ]. There are also studies reporting an association between perceived lack of control and health problems, somatic as well as mental [ 8 — 11 ], and studies reporting that lack of control is an important mediator between socio-economic status and somatic health [ 1213 ].
One study reports perceived control to be among the strongest mediators between level of education and psychological wellbeing [ 14 ], and another that lack of control at work is an important mediator between employment grade and depressive symptoms [ 15 ].
In a recent survey paper Marmot suggests that lack of control or autonomy is among the most important mediators between socioeconomic status and health [ 16 ]. The aim of the present study was to explore to which extent sense of mastery mediates the effect of education on mental health, when adjusting for the effect of socio-demographic factors, social support and negative life events.
The data in the present study were obtained from the Health and Level of Living Survey conducted by Statistics Norway incovering 10, individuals above the age of 15 years. The data on mental health and psychosocial variables were obtained by postal questionnaire, after an initial interview by home visit or telephone.
Data on education, income and marital status were based on register statistics from Statistics Norway. The response rate was Non-response analysis showed that the non-responders differed only slightly from the total sample with respect to gender, age and place of living in Norway. Only those in the age group 25—67 years were included in present the study, and the final sample with data on education counted persons.
Missing data on other social and psychosocial variables were substituted by means. Mental health was measured by the HSCL [ 17 ] which consists of 25 questions about symptoms of depression, anxiety and common psychosomatic symptoms during the last 14 days.Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article.
Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Nurse Education Today is the leading international journal providing a forum for the publication of high quality original research, review and debate in the discussion of nursingmidwifery and interprofessional health care educationpublishing papers which contribute to the advancement of educational Nurse Education Today is the leading international journal providing a forum for the publication of high quality original research, review and debate in the discussion of nursingmidwifery and interprofessional health care educationpublishing papers which contribute to the advancement of educational theory and pedagogy that support the evidence-based practice for educationalists worldwide.
The journal stimulates and values critical scholarly debate on issues that have strategic relevance for leaders of health care education. The journal publishes the highest quality scholarly contributions reflecting the diversity of people, health and education systems worldwide, by publishing research that employs rigorous methodology as well as by publishing papers that highlight the theoretical underpinnings of education and systems globally.
The journal will publish papers that show depth, rigour, originality and high standards of presentation, in particular, work that is original, analytical and constructively critical of both previous work and current initiatives. Authors are invited to submit original research, systematic and scholarly reviews, and critical papers which will stimulate debate on research, policy, theory or philosophy of nursing and related health care education, and which will meet and develop the journal's high academic and ethical standards.
The journal employs a double blind peer review process for all submissions and its current Impact Factor is 2. In partnership with the communities we serve; we redouble our deep commitment to inclusion and diversity within our editorial, author and reviewer networks.
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Cornelis T. Lyn Ebert Samantha Watkins Methodological challenges in qualitative content analysis: A discussion paper Ulla H. Graneheim Britt Marie Lindgren Robyn P. Cant Simon J. Sharon MacLean Michelle Kelly Athena D. Sherman Andrea N. Sherman Alex McDowellIssue 4, December As a result of the significant disruption that is being caused by the COVID pandemic we are very aware that many researchers will have difficulty in meeting the timelines associated with our peer review process during normal times.
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Explore Online first articles Volumes and issues Sign up for alerts. Taxes will be calculated during checkout. Learn about institutional subscriptions. Print ISSN Fatima Qureshi. ResearchGate continues to provide access to thousands of copyrighted articles, revealed a recent report by the Coalition for Responsible Sharing CfRS. The coalition, which includes publishers such as Wiley and Elsevier, was formed in to tackle the surge of copyrighted articles being uploaded on the academic networking platform ResearchGate.
At the time the CfRS was formed, as many as 7. Publishing giants Elsevier and American Chemical Society requested ResearchGate to modify their content-sharing policy, which were ignored by the networking platform.
Following this, the publishers filed lawsuits against the platform in the U. The latest CfRS report published in June states that ResearchGate has continued to upload approximately 1 million copyrighted articles without permission,of which were published by members of the CfRS. The CfRS has been pushing ResearchGate to install an automatic pre-screening system that will prevent users from uploading copyrighted content to the platform.
James Milne, the chairperson of the CfRS, highlighted another issue that publishers are facing. The German consortium, for instance, is assertive in its stand for open access deals. According to the article, this is possibly because librarians are assured that researchers can access free articles on platforms like ResearchGate.
How do you think publishers and ResearchGate can prevent the tide of copyright-infringing articles on the researcher-networking platform?
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One click sign-in with your social accounts. Sign up via email. Industry News. Thousands of copyrighted articles are still being uploaded on ResearchGate, reveals a recent report 3 min read. Springer Nature and ResearchGate launch an innovative access model for research papers 3 min read. Springer Nature and ResearchGate extend their content sharing pilot project 3 min read.Last week, five publishers said they had formed a coalition that would start ordering ResearchGate to remove research articles from its site because they breach publishers' copyright.
Meanwhile, coalition members Elsevier and the American Chemical Society have filed a lawsuit to try to prevent copyrighted material appearing on ResearchGate in future. The complaint, which has not been made public, was filed on 6 October in a regional court in Germany. ResearchGate is based in Berlin.
ResearchGate may already have begun taking articles down, according to a 10 October statement by the coalition. The group said it had noticed that the site had removed "a significant number of copyrighted articles", although ResearchGate hadn't shared information about this with publishers. The clash has been a long time coming. Researchers are increasingly posting paywalled research papers online, many of them on ResearchGate, a network often likened to Facebook for scientists. Not only do academics upload articles to the site, but ResearchGate also scrapes material online and invites researchers to claim and upload these papers, says James Milne, a spokesperson for the five-publisher group, which calls itself the Coalition for Responsible Sharing.
In September, the International Association of Scientific, Technical, and Medical Publishers, a trade group based in Oxford, UK, sent a letter to ResearchGate suggesting that the network introduce an automated filtering system, through which uploaded articles would be shared publicly or privately depending on their copyright status.
Publishers generally say that paywalled articles for which they own copyright can be shared only privately; scientists are allowed to upload preprints, and peer-reviewed but unedited manuscripts, online for general access.
Litigation has been tried before: inElsevier sent 3, notices under the US Digital Millennium Copyright Act to scholarly networks including Academia. But the new actions would be on a larger scale. The site says it will quickly disable access to infringing material after being notified of a problem. But repeatedly sending lots of take-down notices is not a long-term solution, Milne says — hence the lawsuit, which aims to clarify what responsibility ResearchGate has to prevent copyright breaches.
Not all publishers have stopped discussions with ResearchGate.
Major Issues in Education: 20 Hot Topics (From Grade School to College)
Updated to include details of a 10 October statement by the coalition of five publishers, which said that ResearchGate had begun removing from public view some copyrighted articles. Jamali, H. Scientometrics— Richard has reported for Nature in London sinceafter spending two years as a reporter at Chemistry World.
He has a master's degree in natural sciences from the University of Cambridge. For the best commenting experience, please login or register as a user and agree to our Community Guidelines.In America, issues in education are big topics of discussion, both in the news media and among the general public. The current education system is beset by a wide range of challenges, from cuts in government funding to changes in disciplinary policies—and much more.
Everyone agrees that providing high-quality education for our citizens is a worthy ideal. However, there are many diverse viewpoints about how that should be accomplished. And that leads to highly charged debates, with passionate advocates on both sides.
Understanding education issues is important for students, parents, and taxpayers. By being well-informed, you can contribute valuable input to the discussion. You can also make better decisions about what causes you will support or what plans you will make for your future. This article provides detailed information on many of today's most relevant primary, secondary, and post-secondary education issues. It also outlines four emerging trends that have the potential to shake up the education sector.
You'll learn about:. America's elementary and secondary schools are facing a myriad of challenges. Several of the present issues of education are:. On any list of current issues in education, school funding ranks near the top. As you may be aware, the American public education system comprises primary and secondary schools supported by taxes.
Over 90 percent of the funding for public K schools comes from state and local governments. In the wake of the Great Recession, most states made cuts to funding for schools. That was understandable, since the bulk of state funding comes from revenues generated by sales and income taxes, both of which drop in times of recession.
However, many states are still giving schools less cash now than they did before the Great Recession. The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities found that, as of the academic year, 29 states were still spending less per K student than they did a decade earlier.
That's why the formulas that states use to fund schools have come under fire in recent years and have even been the subjects of lawsuits. For example, inthe Kansas Supreme Court ruled that the legislature's formula for financing schools was unconstitutional because it didn't adequately fund education.
Less funding means that smaller staff, fewer programs, and diminished resources for students are common school problems. In some cases, schools are unable to pay for essential maintenance.
A report noted that close to a quarter of all U. The issue reached a tipping point inwith teachers in Arizona, Colorado, and other states walking off the job to demand additional educational funding. Some of the protests resulted in modest funding increases, but many educators believe that more must be done.
Over the past several years, a string of high-profile mass shootings in U. After 17 people were killed in shootings at a high school in Parkland, Florida, 57 percent of teenagers said they were worried about the possibility of gun violence at their school.Teresa Penfield, Matthew J.
Baker, Rosa Scoble, Michael C. We take a more focused look at the impact component of the UK Research Excellence Framework taking place in and some of the challenges to evaluating impact and the role that systems might play in the future for capturing the links between research and impact and the requirements we have for these systems. When considering the impact that is generated as a result of research, a number of authors and government recommendations have advised that a clear definition of impact is required Duryea, Hochman, and Parfitt ; Grant et al.
From the outset, we note that the understanding of the term impact differs between users and audiences. In the UK, evaluation of academic and broader socio-economic impact takes place separately. This distinction is not so clear in impact assessments outside of the UK, where academic outputs and socio-economic impacts are often viewed as one, to give an overall assessment of value and change created through research.
In terms of research impact, organizations and stakeholders may be interested in specific aspects of impact, dependent on their focus. Impact is assessed alongside research outputs and environment to provide an evaluation of research taking place within an institution. As such research outputs, for example, knowledge generated and publications, can be translated into outcomes, for example, new products and services, and impacts or added value Duryea et al.
It is perhaps assumed here that a positive or beneficial effect will be considered as an impact but what about changes that are perceived to be negative? Wooding et al.
Thalidomide has since been found to have beneficial effects in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Clearly the impact of thalidomide would have been viewed very differently in the s compared with the s or today. In viewing impact evaluations it is important to consider not only who has evaluated the work but the purpose of the evaluation to determine the limits and relevance of an assessment exercise. In this article, we draw on a broad range of examples with a focus on methods of evaluation for research impact within Higher Education Institutions HEIs.
As part of this review, we aim to explore the following questions:. What are the reasons behind trying to understand and evaluate research impact? What are the methodologies and frameworks that have been employed globally to assess research impact and how do these compare? What are the challenges associated with understanding and evaluating research impact? What indicators, evidence, and impacts need to be captured within developing systems.
Throughout history, the activities of a university have been to provide both education and research, but the fundamental purpose of a university was perhaps described in the writings of mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead The university imparts information, but it imparts it imaginatively.
At least, this is the function which it should perform for society. A university which fails in this respect has no reason for existence.
This atmosphere of excitement, arising from imaginative consideration transforms knowledge. In undertaking excellent research, we anticipate that great things will come and as such one of the fundamental reasons for undertaking research is that we will generate and transform knowledge that will benefit society as a whole.
One might consider that by funding excellent research, impacts including those that are unforeseen will follow, and traditionally, assessment of university research focused on academic quality and productivity.
Aspects of impact, such as value of Intellectual Property, are currently recorded by universities in the UK through their Higher Education Business and Community Interaction Survey return to Higher Education Statistics Agency; however, as with other public and charitable sector organizations, showcasing impact is an important part of attracting and retaining donors and support Kelly and McNicoll The reasoning behind the move towards assessing research impact is undoubtedly complex, involving both political and socio-economic factors, but, nevertheless, we can differentiate between four primary purposes.
HEIs overview. To enable research organizations including HEIs to monitor and manage their performance and understand and disseminate the contribution that they are making to local, national, and international communities.
To demonstrate to government, stakeholders, and the wider public the value of research.